高二英语Unit10 Frightening nature复习教案汇总

作者:佚名 教案来源:网络 点击数:    有奖投稿

高二英语Unit10 Frightening nature复习教案汇总

文 章
来源 莲山 课件 w w
w.5 Y k J.cOM

高二英语Unit10 Frightening nature复习教案汇总

课时跟踪讲练

Section I  课前准备、听力、口语

1. How does nature form a danger to people in the world and how can science help reduce that threat. 大自然是怎样对全世界人民形成一种威胁的及科学能如何帮助减少这种威胁。( p.73 Warming Up No.3)

1) danger此处用作可数名词,意为“危害,威胁”,常与介词to或of连用。如:① The narrow bridge is a danger to traffic. 这座狭窄的桥梁对交通造成了危险。② Violent criminals like that are a danger to society. 这种暴力罪犯对社会是一种危害。③ A busy street is a danger to children. 交通流量大的街道对小孩子很危险。

【链接】像danger一样,还有些抽象名词可表示具体化的事物。如:surprise,cold,pleasure,pity,failure,success,  worry,honour,  experience,must,difficulty,youth,beauty,wonder,interest等;但也有些抽象名词即使没有形容词修饰也不能具体化,如:fun,advice,information,health,progress,wealth,news,weather等。如:① The experiment has turned out a success. 实验终于成功了。② Many people agree that a knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. 许多人赞成当今国际贸易中英语知识是不可缺少的东西。

2) reduce此处用作及物动词,意为“把 (数量、力量等)减少;缩小(尺寸、程度等);降低(价格等)”,如:① I bought this shirt because it was reduced from $12 to $6. 我买了这件衬衣,因为它的价格从12英镑减到6英镑。    ② She reduced her weight by 5 kilograms. 她的体重减轻了5公斤。③ Reduce the sauce by boiling it for ten minutes. 煮十分钟把调味汁熬掉些。④ The new working method further reduced production costs. 新的操作方法进一步降低了生产成本。

【拓展】reduce还可意为“使成为(多用于被动语态且与to连用);使处于某种状态(须与to连用)”。如:① The bomb reduced the city to ruins. 炸弹爆炸使得该城镇化为废墟。② The house was reduced to ashes. 房子被烧成了灰烬。③ He managed to reduced the group of children to silence. 他设法使这些孩子静了下来。④In the old society he was reduced to begging. 在旧社会他被逼得讨饭。

2. My friend said he was scared to death. 我的朋友说他吓得要死。(p.74 Speaking 倒数第7行)

1) scared意为“感到害怕(恐惧)的,受惊吓的”,其后常与介词of/at,动词不定式或that从句连用。如: ① Are you scared of snakes? 你怕蛇吗? ② Why won't you come on the trip? Are you scared? 你为什么不参加旅行?你害怕吗? ③ She was scared to ride on the horse. 她怕

骑马。④ I'm scared to fly in a plane/scared that it might crash. 我很怕坐飞机旅行/很怕飞机坠毁。

【辨析】scared;frightened;terrified 三者意义相同,只是程度不同:scared语气最弱,terrified语气最强。

① I felt a bit scared when the plane took off. 飞机起飞时,我有点害怕。② The child was frightened by the big dog. 那孩子被狗吓坏了。③ I was terrified when the tiger ran towards me. 那只老虎向我扑来时,我吓坏了。

2) 本句中的介词to表示某一过程达到的结果,变为“成了…,以至变为…”。如: ① His debts amounted to 5,000 dollars. 他的负债额达到了5000美元。② The cup was broken to pieces. 那杯子破成了碎片。③ The snow soon turned to water under the rays of the sun. 在阳光照射下雪很快变成了水。④ The cake was burnt to a cinder by the time Mary got back. 玛丽回来时,点心已烤成焦炭。⑤ He drank himself to death. 他饮酒致死。⑥ To our great surprise,he didn't turn up. 使我们很奇怪的是他竟然没有露面。

3. Some people got into a total panic, when the typhoon pulled the roofs off their houses and cars went up in the air. 当台风掀掉屋顶、汽车刮上天时,有些人惊慌起来。(p.74 Speaking 倒数第4行)

1) get into a panic意为“进入恐怖状态”,其后与about连用引出原因。如:① The audience got into a panic about the fire in the theatre.观众因剧院起火而变得慌乱起来。② She got into a panic when she thought she'd forgotten the tickets. 她想起忘了带入场券时,顿时惊慌起来。

【注意】panic尤其指没有明确的理由而传开于群众间的恐慌,通常用单数形式或当作不可数名词。如:① We were thrown into a panic when the lights suddenly went off. 当灯突然熄灭时,我们陷入一片慌乱。 ② The crowd was in a panic. 群众陷入恐慌状态。

2) 句中off意为“从原位置或接触连接处移开,分离或脱落”,即从整体中去掉某一部分。如: ① One of the buttons has come off my coat. 我的衣服掉了一个纽扣。 ② The bus hit a truck and ran off the road. 那辆公共汽车撞上了一辆卡车,冲出了公路。③ She took some meat off the plate. 她从盘子里拿走了一些肉。④ You are going off the subject, aren't you? 你的话离题了,不是吗?

3) go up的几种常见意思:a. 上涨,提高; b. 响起;c. 爆炸, 被炸,/烧毁;d. 拔地而起。如: ① Everything seems to be going up these days. 近来什么东西好像都要涨价。② When the first stream of clear water flowed into the canal,a great cheer went up. 当第一股清泉流入水渠时,顿时一片欢腾。 ③ The tall building went up in flames. 这座大楼在熊熊烈火中烧毁了。④ New universities went up at a fantastic rate in the 1980s. 在80年代,新的大学以极快的速度建造起来。

4. Yeah, man. Now that kind of thing would really frighten me. 嗯,老兄。那种事情确实使我害怕。(p.74 Speaking 倒数第4行)

man此处用作不可数名词,用于称呼男性,意为“老兄”。如:① This party is really great, man! 老兄,这个聚会真是棒极了! ② Wake up, man,you can't sleep all day! 老兄,醒醒,你不能整天睡觉!

【链接】有关man的几种特殊用法:(1) 在男人与女人相提并论时,man前不用冠词,单独用。如:Man is stronger than woman. 男人比女人强壮。(2)用作不可数名词,表示“人类”时,不和冠词连用。如:Man must fight for his own existence. 人类必须为自己的生存而奋斗。(3) men and woman是固定短语,词序不能颠倒,表示“男女”。如:This TV play is so interesting that men and women,boys and girls like to watch it. 这部电视剧非常有趣,男女老少都爱看。(4)含man的几条谚语:① So many men,so many minds. 人各有志。② Like master,like man. 有其主必有其仆。③ Dead man tell no tales. 死人不会泄露。④ A man can die but once. 人无二死。⑤ A man can do n0 more than he can. 凡事应量力而行。⑥ A man can not spin and reel at the same time. 一心不能二用。 ⑦ A man has choice to begin love, but not to end it. 谈爱容易摆脱难。⑧ Men may meet but mountains never. 人生何处不相逢。⑨ A man of words and not of deeds is like a garden full of weeds. 光说不做的人有如光生长野草的花园。⑩ No man is born wise or learned. 人非生而知之者。 ? No man is wise at all times. 智者千虑必有一失。

5. It makes my hair stand on end.这令我毛骨悚然。(p.75 Useful expressions)

  on end意义有二:a. 直立;b. 连续的,继续地(也可以说 right / straight on end)。如:We had to stand the table on end to get in through the door. 我们只能把桌子竖起才能把它抬进这门。The terrible sight made her hair stand on end. 那可怕的景象使她毛骨悚然。He sat there for hours on end. 她连续几个小时坐在那儿。It has been snowing on end for a week.雪连续下了一周。

Section II  阅读

6. You asked me to write you something about the death of my uncle Pliny, who died in an unforgettable disaster. 你叫我写信告诉你有关我叔叔普利尼死亡的一些情况,他是在一次难忘的灾难中去世的。(p.76 Reading 第一段第2行)

disaster意为“灾难;惨事;灾害;不幸”,可用作可数名词,也可用作不可数名词,它主要表示突然降临的使个人生命财产受到损失或毁掉某人事业、前途的灾难,也指自然灾害。如:① The flood was a terrible disaster, hundreds of people died. 那次洪水是一场可怕的灾难,有数以百计的人丧生。② Everything was going well, and then suddenly disaster struck. 一切正进展顺利的时候,突然发生了可怕的事情。③ The election results will bring political disaster. 这次选举的结果会在政治上引起严重的不良后果。④ The crash was the worst air disaster this year. 那次飞机坠毁事件是今年最严重的空难。

【拓展】惹祸:cause/court / invite disaster

    遭受灾害:experience/meet/suffer (a) disaster

7. We lived in southern Italy. 我们居住在意大利南部。(p.76 Reading 第二段第1行)

south,southern,southward (s);southerly (这类词汇)

(1) 为明确地给地球表面划定范围,尤其是政治范围时,我们通常用south,north,east;west;对于不太明确的范围划分,通常用southern,northern,eastern,western。如:South Africa南非  Southern Africa南部非洲(包括南部非洲许多地方,不光指南非)  East China华东the eastern part of China中国的东部(不光指华东地区)

(2) south等词,重点在形容方位或从哪个方向来的;而southern等词则指从某一固定地点看某一方向,或指某物来自何方向或某个方向。如:the North Pole北极the Western Hills西山(指从北京看,西山在西方)

(3) south等作副词时,和southward (s)等意义相同,但后者较少使用;southward (adj.& adv.)等词比south (adj. & adv.)等“朝、向”概念更强。如: ① Our house faces south/southward. 我们家的房子朝南。② After having travelled 15 miles, we turned eastwards. 我们走了15英里后就转往东去了。③ They advanced in a westward direction. 他们朝西方行进。

(4) southerly等词用于表示气流和风向,意为“来自某方向”(主要指“偏南”等)。如:The southerly air stream will bring rain. 南来的气流会带来雨水。

【注意】方位名词south,north,east,west等常与定冠词连用。如:① The airport is a few kilometres to the

south of London. 机场位于伦敦以南几公里处。② The clouds are coming from the west. 那些云自西边涌起。

8. On the 24th of August in 79 AD, between two and three in the afternoon my mother drew my uncle's attention to a cloud of unusual size and shape. 在公元79年8月24日那天,下午两三点时分我妈妈让我叔叔注意到了一片不同寻常大小和形状的云。(p.76 Reading 第二段 第2行)

1) draw one's attention : “引起某人注意” 我们可说:attract/capture/catch/command/draw/get/bring to one's attention。如:① Her shouts drew the attention of the police. 她的喊叫声引起了警察的注意。② He drew atten- tion to the rising unemployment. (=The rising unemploy- ment drew his attention.)失业率的日渐升高引起了他的注意。③ I drew his attention to the fact. 我使他注意此事。④ The matter attracted our attention. 那件事引起了我们的注意。⑤ She waved her hand to catch my attention. 她挥手以引起我的注意。

【链接】与attention构成的常见搭配:devote one's attention to 专心于;give/pay attention to 注意;hold one's attention on 将注意力集中在;direct/turn one's attention to 将注意力转向;fix one's attention on 留意,专心于;with attention 专心,注意地;stand at attention 立正;Attention,please! 请各位注意!

【注意】pay one's attention to 还意为“向女人献殷勤”。

【拓展】attention 除作“注意”讲,还可意为“照料;治疗;亲切;殷勤”。如:① The boy shows his mother much attention. 这男孩非常关心他母亲。② The patient needs immediate attention. 那病人需要立即治疗。③ He tried to win her heart by a lot of attention. 他向她献殷勤以获芳心。

2) be of a (n)/the/the same +表示年龄、形状、大小、样式、种类等名词,可在句中作定语或表语,说明名词的特征或性质。如:① The two boys are of middle height. 这个男孩中等个子。② Birds of a feather flock together. 物以类聚。③ They are of the same age. 他们年龄一样大。 ④ The two rooms are of a size. 这两个房间一样大小。

8. We watched it rising from a mountain — at such a distance we couldn't tell which one, but we later learnt that it was Mount Vesuvius. 我们看见它是从一座山上升起来的-在这么远的地方我们分辨不出是哪座山,但后来我们得知那是维苏威火山。(p.76 Reading 第二段 第3行)

1) at a distance意为“从远处;隔开一段距离”。如:① Dogs that bark at a distance never bite. 在远处叫的狗不咬人。② The sound of the waterfall can be heard at a distance of 2 miles. 在2英里外就能听到瀑布声。 ③ The pyramids are visible at a distance of several kilometres. 一座座金字塔在数英里的地方就能看到。 ④ While she was yet at some distance,he turned and saw her. 她在远处还有一段距离时,他转身看到了她。⑤ She kept him at a distance until he had proved he could be trusted. 在他证明自己确实可依赖之前,她一直对他很冷淡。

【链接】与distance构成的短语:from a distance 从远处    in the distance 在远处,远方的;keep one's distance 保持距离;不亲近;keep sb. at a distance 冷待某人; go the full distance 走完全程;work out distance 计算出距离;by distance 按里程;within hearing distance 在能听到的地方

2) tell此处意为“断定;辨别;识别;看出”,通常用于否定句和疑问句, 与can, could或be able to连用。如:① The two brothers are so much alike that it is almost impossible to tell one from the other. 这两兄弟非常相像,几乎不可能把他们分辨出来。② I can't tell which bag is hers. 我分辨不出哪一个手提袋是她的。③ Can you tell the difference between the two? 你能看出两者之间的差别吗? ④ No one can tell what will happen in the future. 谁也不知道将来会发生什么。⑤ I can't tell whether/if it's right. 我不能判定此事是对还是错。

9. The sight of it awoke the scientist in my uncle to go and see it from closer at hand. 目睹到这情景,身为科学家的我叔叔决定到近处观察。(p.76 Reading 第二段第5行)

1) 介词in在此表示同一性,意为“在……(身)上”。如:① And you will have another supporter in me. 你还有另一个支持者,那就是我。② In her I see a future leader. 我看出她是一位未来的领袖人物。③ You will always have a friend in me. 我将永远是你的一位好朋友。④ She didn't have it in her to cheat. 她不会做骗人的事情。

2) at hand此处意为“在近处”,为固定搭配。如:① For- tunately there was someone at hand, so we asked him to deliver the message at once. 幸好附近有人,因此我们就请他立即把信送去。② They live close at hand. 他们住在附近。

【拓展】at hand还可作“即将来到,在手边”讲。如:① I always keep a dictionary (ready) at hand. 我总是把词典放在手边。② I haven't my book at hand, but I'll show it to you later.我的书不在手头,以后再给你看吧。③ The autumn harvest is at hand. 秋收即将到来。④ Victory is near at hand, but we still have to keep on fighting. 胜利已经在望,但我们还是继续战斗。

【注意】at hand也常用下列形式:near/close at hand,next one's hand,ready at hand,ready to hand,to hands;在美国英语中,也说on hand。

【链接】与hand构成的介词短语:at the hand(s)of sb. 出自某人之手;at first hand 直接地,亲自的;by hand 用手(做)的;靠工人;from hand to hand 从一人(之手)转到他人(之手);from hand to mouth 仅够糊口地;hand in glove 非常亲密的;同伙地;hand in hand 携手,共同地  hand to hand 短兵相接地;on (the) one hand 一方面;on the other hand 另一方面;out of hand 立刻,马上;to hand 在手边,在手中;under one's hand 由某人签名的;with one's own hands 由某人亲自

10. He hurried to a place from which others were fleeing, and held his course directly into danger. 他急忙赶到一个别人从此逃走的地方,直奔危险地带。(p.76 Reading 第三段第4行)

flee 用作不及物动词,意为“(尤指因害怕)逃走(掉);消失(散)”;也可用作及物动词,意为“逃离;逃避”。其过去式、过去分词为fled,fled。如:① The spectators fled in panic when the bull got loose. 那头公牛挣开了束缚,吓得观众急忙四散逃走。② The family fled (from) the burning house. 那家人从燃烧的房子中逃了出来。③ The enemy soldiers fled in all directions. 敌兵四下溃逃。④ Mists flee before the rising sun. 日出雾散。⑤ His hope fled when he was refused the admittance to the company. 当他被拒绝进入这家公司时,他希望破灭了。⑥ We were forced to flee the country. 我们被迫逃往国外。

【注意】在现代英语中,flee的现在时及现在分词形式通常用fly的相应形式fly和flying来替代。

【拓展】一句多译:他从那个国家逃跑了。

① He fled from that country.

② He flew (from) that country.

③ He escaped from that country.

④ He ran away from that country.

【辨析】flee; escape; fly; run away

flee 强调逃跑的行为本身,常含有“惧怕”的意味,可用作vt. & vi.。escape 强调逃跑的结果,即“跑掉”,只用作vi.。fly 强调逃跑的仓促性,通常带有紧急的意味,可用作vt. & vi.。run away 多用于口语,含有“不辞而别”的意味,只用作 vi.。① He escaped from / out of the burning house. 他从燃烧着的房子里逃了出来。② He came flying into the room. 他飞一样地奔进房间来。③ The boy ran away from home and went to sea. 那男孩离家出走,当上了海员。

11. Ash and bits of rock that were burnt black were falling onto the ship now,darker and more, the closer they went. 灰烬和片片烧黑的岩石开始往船上掉落,他们走得越近,就越黑更多。(p.76 Reading第四段第1行)

darker and more, the closer they went属于“the more...the more...”结构,意为“越…,越…”,前者为从句,后者为主句,在本句话中,主从句语序颠倒。且省略了从句中的the。如:① The more people you know,the less time you have to see them. 你认识的人越多,你见他们的时间就越少。 ② The more you study, the more you know. 学得越多,懂得就越多。 ③ The busier the old man is, the happier he feels. 那位老人越忙越高兴。④ The smaller the room or the more people in it, the faster the air becomes bad. 房子越小或里边的人越从,空气变坏的就越快。⑤ It becomes(the)colder, the higher we go up in the air. 我们越是往上天气就越冷。

【注意】(1) 前一个the是关系副词,表示程度范围等 (= by how much,in whatever degree);后一个the是指示副词(= by so much,in that degree)。(2)有时根据具体语境可使用省略结构。如:① The more, the better.越多越好。② The sooner, the better.越快越好。

12. He paused for a moment wondering whether to turn back as the captain urged him. 当船长催促他时,他暂时停了一会儿想想是否返回。(p.76  Reading 第四段 第2行)

1) pause;break的区别:*pause 指动作的暂时停顿,语气较缓和。* break 指活动过程中为某种目的的暂时中断。* pause 常用来指说话或朗读中的换气或停顿的地方,也指战争期间的停火等。① The teacher played the tape with a pause after each sentence. 老师在放录音带时第一个句尾暂停一下。② I had to pause for breath. 我不得不停下来喘口气。③ Government sources said there would be no prolonged pause in the war. 据官方消息,这场战争的时间不会长久。④ Let's have a tea break to have a talk. 咱们喝点茶休息一下聊聊天。⑤ She has worked for 4 hours without a break. 她一口气干了4小时,没有休息一会儿。 ⑥ The workmen took a break so we enjoyed a brief respite from the noise. 工人们休息了一下,所以我们能够享受片刻的安宁。

2) for a moment意为“一会儿”(=for a while)。如: ① There was silence for a moment, then someone came out with a most useful suggestion. 沉默了一会儿,然后有人提出一项极有用的建议。② The question was so unexpected that, for a moment, she was at a loss how to act up properly. 问题来的这么突然,她一时不知道如何做出恰当的反应。③ I'll stay for a moment. 我要呆一会儿。

【注意】not for a moment意为“一刻也不;绝不”。如:① I don't for a moment doubt his innocence. 我绝不怀疑他的清白。② Not for a moment would I think that you did it. 我认为这绝对不是你干的。

【链接】与moment构成的介词短语:at the moment 此刻,当时;at the last moment 在紧要关头; for the moment 目前,暂时;in a moment 立即,马上; of the moment 现在的,目前的;to the (very) moment (时间)正好;at any moment 在任何时候;from the first moment 从开始起

3) whether;if的区别:whether;if作“是否”讲,一般可以互换,但下列情况例外,只能用whether:a. 后接动词不定式时; b. 引导的主语从句或宾语从句置于句首时;c. 引导表语从句或同位语从句时;d. 作动词discuss及介词的宾语从句时; e. 其后紧跟or not时。① I wonder whether to tell her or not. 我不知道该不该告诉她。② Whether this is true or not, I can't say. 这是不是真的,我不敢说。③ Whether he would come was uncertain. 他是否来还不清楚。④ The question whether the Prime Minister should resign must be decided soon. 首相应不应该辞职的问题必须迅速决定。⑤ The problem is whether she can arrive on time. 问题是她能否按时来到。⑥ -- When shall we leave for London? -- It depends on whether she's ready. — 我们何时动身去伦敦? — 要看她是否准备好了。⑦ He didn't say whether or not he would be staying there. 他没说他是否将在那里停留。⑧ We discussed whether we should dose the shop. 我们讨论了是否该把门关掉。

13. Upon arrival, my uncle hugged Pompy and tried to give him courage. 刚一到达那里,我叔叔就拥抱宠培并尽量为他鼓足勇气。(p.76  Reading 第5段 第3行)

“on/upon + 名词/动名词”可在句中作状语,意为“一……就”,相当于as soon as引导的时间状语从句。如:   ① On/Upon his return from Beijing, he began his research work. 他一从北京回来,就立即开始了他的研究工作。② The boys stood up on the entrance of the head teacher. 班主任一进来,孩子们就起立。③ On his arrival at the airport, he was arrested by the police。他一到机场就被警察抓住了。④ The woman cried out on bearing the strange whistle. 那妇女一听到那奇怪的哨音便立即大叫起来。⑤ On reading it,he found that a servant of the family in France had been put into prison, though no fault of his own. 看了信,他得知他法国家中的一个仆人无辜地被关进了监狱。

【链接】 “一…就…”表达法种种:(1) as soon as;once:As soon as she heard the news, she burst into tears. 一听到这个消息,她就大哭起来。(2) the (very) moment (instant,minute,second,etc.):The moment she saw the snake, she turned pale. 一见到蛇,她的脸变得苍白。(3) instantly;immediately; directly:The young lady had rushed into the room immediately she heard a noise. 那位年轻女子一听到响声就冲进了房间。(4) no sooner...than;hardly...when/before:I had hardly got into the car when/before I heard a man call my name. 我刚一踏进车子就听见有人叫我。(5) at/with+名词词组:With the first appearance of the sun, the birds begin to sing. 太阳一出百鸟鸣。

14. He bathed and had dinner, giving everyone the impression that there was no danger at all. 他洗了澡,吃了饭,给大家一种根本就没有危险的印象。(p.76 Reading 第5段 第5行)

impression作“印象”讲,可作可数名词或不可数名词。如:① His speech made quite an impression on the audience. 他的演说给听众留下了相当好的印象。② First impressions are often wrong. 第一印象往往是靠不住的。    ③ His behavior gave her a had impression. 他的行为给她留下了一个恶劣的印象。

【注意】 ① “给某人留下印象”可说 leave/make/have a...impression that...。② “觉得,以为”不能说 in one's impression,而说be under the impression that.”。③ his impression of her = her impression on him

【拓展】impress 作“使(某人)印象深刻”时,通常用于被动语态,不用进行时,常用于be impressed by/at / with sth. 或be impressed on one's mind/memory 结构;impress还可作“使(某人)铭记”讲,常用 impress sth. on sb. 或impress sb. with sth. 结构。如:① The teachers were most impressed by your performance in the exam. 所有老师被你们的考试成绩所深深感动。② We've tried the new product and we're favorably impressed with it. 我们已试过这种新产品,对它相当满意。③ My father impressed on me the value of hard work. (=My father impressed me with the value of hard work.)父亲要我铭记努力工作的重要性。④ She impressed me as a woman of great kindness. 在我印象中,她是一位非常仁慈的女性。

15. He looked more asleep than dead. 他看上去与其说是死了,倒不如说是睡着了。(p.76 Reading 第6段 第5行)

(1) more…than…除表示“比……更……之外”,此处意为“与其说……倒不如说……”。如:① He was more frightened than angry. 与其说他生气了,倒不如说他是吓坏了。② The book seems to be more a dictionary than a grammar. 这本书看起来与其说是一本语法书,倒不如说是一本词典。③ She is more thoughtless than stupid. 与其说她笨,倒不如说她粗心大意。

(2) asleep是表语形容词,不能作定语,若须前置定语,须用sleeping。如:① I fell asleep while watching TV. 我在看电视时睡着了。② Let sleeping dogs lie. (谚)少管闲事免得烦;不捅马蜂窝,蜂也不来蛰。

【链接】仅作表语的形容词有afraid,alike,awake,alone,ashamed,asleep,alive,ill,well,glad,content,sorry (抱歉的),sure (确信的)等。

16. You can pick out the important bits, for it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history, one thing to write to a friend, another to write for the public. 你可以选择点重要的部分,因写信是一回事,编写历史是另一回事,给朋友写信是一回事,为大众写作又是一回事。(p.76 Reading 第7段第2行)

pick out此处意为“(精心)挑选出”。如:① She picked out a scarf to wear with the dress. 她挑选了一条围巾以配上她穿的衣服。② My mother is going to help me pick out a new suit. 母亲要帮我挑选一套新衣服。 ③ Pick out the book you're interested in. 挑出你感兴趣的书来。

【拓展】pick out还可作“(从多数中)找出,分辨出;了解,领会(意义);(以不同的颜色)衬托,使显眼”。如:    ① Can you pick out your brother in this crowd? 你能从这些人中找出你兄弟吗? ② This sailor has an eye accustomed to picking out objects far at sea. 这水手的眼睛惯于辨别远处海上的东西。③ Goether did not know Greek well and had to pick out its meaning with the help of a Latin dictionary. 歌德不谙希腊语,须借拉丁词典把意义弄明白。④ The houses in the painting were picked out in white. 画中的房子在白色衬托下非常突出。

【链接】由pick构成的动词短语:pick and choose 挑三拣四;pick...apart 分解;严厉批评;pick at 指责;吃一点点;pick off 摘去;一个个地射杀;pick on/upon 选择(某人)(做讨厌的事);pick over (慎重地)选择;pick up 拾起;(用车)接人;得到;收听;pick holes in 挑毛病

Section III 词汇、综合技能

17. The Nanshan was on her way from the south to Fuzhou, with Chinese workers on board,returning to their home villages in the province of Fujian. 南山号正从南方驶往福州,船上载着返回福建省老家的中国工人。(p.79 Integrating Skills第1段 第2行)

1) on board在此意为“在船(飞机、车)上” (=on a ship/plane/train),它也可用“到船(飞机,车)上去”讲(=onto or into a ship/plane/train)。如: ① I left the station after she went on board the train. 她上火车后我才离开车站。② As soon as I'm on board a ship, I always feel sick. 我一到船上,就感到恶心。③ As soon as we went on board, our ship left port. 我们一上船,船就出港了。④ There are more than two hundred passengers on board the plane. 当时飞机上有200多名旅客。

【拓展】on board还可作“相并行,支持的;合作的” 讲。如:① Several ships were on board each other. 几艘船并列航行。 ② The essence of Haig's report was that Thien was still "not on board". 黑格的报告的实质就是说蒂欣仍然“不合作”。

【辨析】on the board,on the boards;on board

on the board意为“将在会上讨论”;on the boards意为“当演员”;on board意义见上述讲解。 ① The point will be laid on the board of the next meeting. 这一点将在下次会议上讨论。 ② He has been on the boards an his life. 他当了一辈子演员。

2) return作“返回,回来”讲是不及物动词,作“归还,回报”讲是及物动词。如:① He has just returned to/from the U. S. 他刚回到美国(刚从美国回来)。② Let's return to the topic. 咱们言归正传吧。③ You should return the book to the shelf after you read it. 你读完书后应该放回书架。④ She smiled as I entered the room. I returned the smile. 我进房时,她微微一笑,我也报以微笑。

18. The heat was close. 大热天非常闷热。(p.79 Integra- ting Skills第1段第4行)

1) heat意为“炎热的天气”(=hot weather)。

2) close意为“不通风的,闷热的”。如:① I can't walk about in this heat. 我不能在这么炎热的天气里到处走动。 ② We like living in a tropical country but We couldn't stand the heat. 我们喜欢住在热带地区,但却受不了那里炎热的气候。 ③ It's very close in here; open the window. 这里很闷,把窗子打开吧。④ It was a close day. 这是一个闷热的天气。

19. "There's some dirty weather knocking about." “要有恶劣天气肆虐了。” (p.79 Integrating Skills第2段第2行)

1) dirty在口语当中可作“令人不愉快的;恶劣的;(脸色)难看的;(气候)恶劣的”。如:① The fishermen won't g0 out on such a dirty night. 渔民在这样气候恶劣的晚上不出海。② She gave me a dirty look. 她很不高兴地瞪了我一眼。

2) knock about常见意义有:a. (风浪)冲击(船只); b. 粗暴对待;c. 接连打击;d. 存在,活着;e. 到处漫游。如:① The ship has been badly knocked about by the storm. 这只船被暴风雨冲击得很厉害。② If that men knocks his wife about any more he'll be sent to prison. 要是那个人还虐待妻子,他就要被送进监狱。③ There's nothing to do here;let's go into that field and knock a ball about for an hour or so. 这儿无事可做,咱们去那个场子打半个来小时的球吧。④ There's plenty of money knocking about if you know where to look. 金子有的是-如果你知道哪儿去找的话。⑤ I've knocked about in most parts of the world in my time. 我这辈子差不多游遍了整个世界。

【链接】与knock构成的动词短语:knock back 反击;猛喝(大量酒);knock down 把(人)击倒,拆除; knock in 敲进(钉子等);knock into 将……打入;强迫灌输;knock off 停止(工作);减(价);knock out 击倒;打败;敲出;knock over 推翻;撞到;knock up 敲门叫(人)起床;knock together (两物)互撞;knock against 撞;偶然遇见

20. "What's up?" Jukes, the engineer, asked.“出了什么事?”工程师朱克斯问道。(p.79第2段第3行)

What's up? 在非正式文体中相当于What's happening? What's the matter? 意为“(不好的事)出了什么事?”。如: ① What's up? Why are they crying? 出什么事了?他们为什么哭? ② I knew something was up when I saw the smoke. 当我看到冒烟时,我知道一定是出事了。③ What's up,Mike? You look pale. 怎么啦,麦克?你看起来(脸色)苍白。

5. "It looks as if a typhoon is coming on." said the Captain. “看起来好像要来台风了,” 船长说道。(p.79 Integrating Skills 第2段第4行)

come on此处意为“开始,来临”,从句中的进行时表示将来的动作。如:① There is a storm coming on. 暴风雨要来了。② Winter is coming on, you can feel it in the air. 冬天要来了,你从空气中就能感觉到。③ It came on to snow heavily towards the evening. 黄昏时分,大雪纷飞。    ④ The rain came on again while we were working in the fields. 我们正在田野中干活,又下起雨来了。

【拓展】come on意思较多,常见的还有:a. 跟随,随后; b. 进行,进展;c. (演员,演奏者,选手等) 出场,(电视)播放,(电影,戏剧)上演;d. (突然) 袭击; e. (用于祈使句,催促对方,表示劝诱、激励、鼓励、挑战、注意等)来吧、好啦、赶快、来呀、得了吧。如:① You had better go now, I'll come on later. 你最好现在就走,我随后就来。② You have come on well with your tennis. 你的网球进步很快。③ What time does the news come on? 新闻几点钟寸开始播报呢? ④ Fear came on her when all the lights suddenly went out. 所有的灯突然熄灭时,她感到一阵恐惧侵袭上来。⑤ -- I'll take at least two hours to do this. -- Oh, come on! I could do it in 20 minutes! — 做这件事我至少需花2个小时。— 咳,得啦!我只要20分钟就可以做完。⑥ Come on, children, or we'll be late! 快点,孩子们,不然我们就晚了。

21. "Whatever there might be," said Jukes, "we are steaming straight into it".“不管是什么,”朱克斯说,“我们都要径直行驶进去。”(p.79 Integrating Skills 第3段第1行)

1) steam在此用作不及物动词,意为“(蒸汽机、轮船、火车等) 行驶”。如:① The ship steamed into the harbour. 船驶入了港湾。② The train steamed into the station. 火车喷着蒸汽驶入车站。③ The ship steamed at twelve knots. 轮船以每小时十二里的速度行驶。

【拓展】steam还可作“冒热气,把蒸汽用于…,蒸发”讲。如:① The kettle is steaming.水壶在冒热气。 ② That woman often likes to steam the skin by covering it with hot towels. 那位妇女常常喜欢用蒸汽蒸皮肤,把皮肤用热毛巾包起来。

【链接】由steam构成的习惯搭配:at full steam 全力以赴地,全速;full steam ahead 全速前进; get up steam 加把劲;steam off 用蒸汽使(某物)脱离;steam up (使)蒙上蒸汽;under steam (事情)在进行中;under one's own steam独立地;pick up steam (车)渐渐加速;run out of steam 筋疲力尽;work off steam 使劲干活

2) straight作“直的(地)”讲,其形容词和副词同一种形式,不要在副词后加一ly后缀。如:① Can you make this wire straight? 你能把这铁丝拉直吗? ② The road goes straight across the desert. 那条道路笔直穿过沙漠。

【辨析】 direct;straight:表示“直接去某地”时,用direct (ly) 或straight, direct侧重“直接”,中途不停,而straight 侧重“直”不拐弯。 ① They went direct(1y)/straight home after school. 他们放学后直接回家。② The pupils sat straight, listening to their teacher. 学生们笔直地坐着听老师讲课。(此处不能用direct)

22. "She's done for", Captain MacWhirr said to himself. “她可完了,”麦克沃尔船长心里想。(p.79 Integrating Skills 第4段第4行)

1) do for在此意为“使完蛋,毁掉”,一般用作be done for结构。如:① He took nobody's advice but persisted in his wrong-doing.And now it has done for him. 他谁的劝告都不听,坚持错误,现在他可完了。② I'm afraid he is done for; he won't go over pneumonia at his age. 恐怕他这下子算是完了,他那个年纪得了肺炎是好不了的。③ I'm afraid these shoes are done for; throw them away. 这鞋子算是坏了,扔掉吧。

【拓展】do for还可意为“可做…用;对…适用;照料;替某人管家;得到(食物、饮料等)”。如:① This place will do for a gymnasium. 这地方可做体育馆用。② This room is rather small, but it will do for me. 这房间是小一点儿,但对我来说,也就可以对付了。 ③ Her neighbour did for her during her illness. 她生病期间,由一位邻居照料她。④ How will you do for water while crossing the desert? 你们越过沙漠时,水的问题怎么解决呢?

2) say to oneself 意为“心里想”,相当于think to oneself。如:① He said/thought to himself that there was

something wrong. 他想其中有毛病。② "You shall repent this," said Jim to himself. “总有一天你会后悔,”约翰心里想。③ "I've got to go," she said to herself. 她心想,“我必须走了”。

【拓展】talk to oneself;think aloud意为“自言自语”,而非与say to oneself相同。如:He's always talking to himself. 他总是在自言自语。(=He is always saying something to himself.)

23. "Will she live through this?" “她能挺得过去吗?” (p.79 Integrating Skills第4段第5行)

live through意为“活过;经历(困难,危险等) 而未死”,不能用于被动语态。如:① I don't know how I lived through the next week,waiting for the result. 我不知道我是怎样在等待结果中度过了下一周的。② I couldn’t live through another day like that. 照这样我一天也熬不下去了。③ The patient will not live through the night. 那病人将无法活过今晚。④ We never dreamt we'd have to live through another war. 我们做梦也没想到,我们还要经历一次战争。

【链接】与live有关的常见搭配:live over 再活一次;live up to 配得上;遵从(主义等)行动;live under sth. 生活在…下;live on 以…为主食;靠…生计;live by 以…为生;live down 改过自新;live for 渴望

24. With a tearing crash, tons of water fell upon the deck, as though the ship passed under a waterfall. 伴随着一声巨响,数吨水落在甲板上,好像船从瀑布下穿过一般。(p.79 Integrating Skills 第5段第5-6行)

1) with此处表示“与…同时/随时”,表示伴随情况。如:① Temperatures vary with the time of the year. 气温随季节的变化而变化。② With the approach of Christmas the weather turned colder. 圣诞节临近时天气变得更冷了。③ The girl seemed to be growing prettier with each day. 那女孩好像长得一天比一天漂亮了。

2) fall on/upon此处意为“落在”,也可作“猛烈进攻,袭击;向‘食物’猛扑过去;(节日等)适逢;(责任等)落在(某人)身上”讲。如:① They fell on the enemy vigorously. 他们猛烈地向敌人进攻。② The hungry children fell on the food. 饥饿的孩子们向食物扑去。③ This year National Day falls on a Monday.今年国庆节适逢星期一。④ Why do these expenses fall on me? 我为何要负担这些费用?

【注意】 fall on hard times意为“遭遇痛苦”;fall on one's feet意为“幸免于难”(源于猫从高处落下能站稳。

3) as though (=as if) 可用来引导状语从句或表语从句,意为“好像/仿佛……”,其内容往往是主观的想象或夸大性的比喻,在书面语中,从句谓语动词常用虚拟语气形式,有下列三种情况:a. 从句情况发生在主句之前,用过去完成时。b. 从句情况与主句同时发生,用过去时或过去进行时。c. 从句情况发生在主句之后,用过去将来时。① He walked slowly as though he had hurt his leg. 他走路缓慢,好像腿受了伤的样子。② It is as if she had known me for years. 她好像认识我许多年了。③ Crusoe heard a noise,as though someone was breathing. 克鲁索听到了嘈杂声,好像有人在呼吸。④ She always talks to me as though she were/was my sister. 她总是以我姐姐的语气跟我说话。⑤ The black sky looks as though it would fall. 漆黑的天空好像要塌下来似的。

【注意】如果as though从句中的谓语动词是表示状态的be,exist,have,belong to等时,动词一般用过去式。如:He took the dictionary away as though it belonged to him. 他拿走了这本词典,好像词典是他的似的。

【注意】当主句谓语动词是seem,look,feel,smell,taste等连系动词时,从句中情况发生的可能性又很大,从句要用陈述语气。如:① The meat tastes as though it has already gone bad. 肉尝起来好像已经坏了。② It looks as though we shall have to do the work ourselves. 看起来我们得自己做这项工作了。

【注意】as though/if有时不接从句,而接形容词、分词、副词、动词不定式或介词短语等,也可看作是从句的省略形式。如:① She hurriedly left the room as if angry. 她急匆匆地离开了房间,好像很生气的样子。 ② He stared at the girl as though seeing her for the first time. 他盯着那位姑娘看好像是第一次看到她似的。③ He opened his mouth as if to speak. 他张开嘴巴,好像要说话似的。④ She was talking a11 the while excitedly, as though to herself. 她好像一直对自己兴奋地说个不停。

25. "We have done it, Sir," he whispered. 他低声说道:“先生,我们已经挺过来了。” (p.80 Integrating Skills第1段第2行)

whisper 在此意为“低语”,用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词或名词。如:① She whispered a warning to me and then disappeared. 她低声警告了我一声就不见了踪影。② She said it in a whisper, so I couldn't hear. 她小声说的这件事,所以我没听见说的是什么。③ He is whispering to his sister. 他向他姐姐窃窃私语。④ He whispered to her so that no one could hear. 他对她低声耳语以使别人听不见。

【拓展】whisper还可作“(树叶或风等)飒飒做响;把(秘密等)悄悄传开,背后议论(常用于被动语态)” 讲。如: ① The wind whispered through the pines. 风透过松林发出飒飒声。② It's whispered that he is heavily in debt. 据秘传他负债累累。

【注意】whisper若接双宾语,间接引语无论位置在前或在后,其前必须加介词to,直接宾语是代词时,只能置于间接宾语之前;是从句时,只能置于间接宾语之后。如:① She's whispering a story to her daughter. 她低声地给女儿讲故事。② She whispered it to him. 她低声对他说了那件事。③ She whispered to him that she was going to London next week. 她低声对他说她下周将去伦敦。

26. "Wind fell all at once. The trouble's not over yet." said Captain MacWhirr half aloud.“风突然减弱了,麻烦还没有结束。”麦克沃尔船长几乎大声地说。(p.80 Integrating Skills 第1段 第2行)

(1) all at once意为“突然” (= suddenly)。如: ① All at once he spoke out. 他突然大胆说出来。 ② There was a change m the weather all at once. 天气突然发生了变化。

【链接】与once构成的短语:once upon a time 从前(用于故事开头);once or twice 几次;once and again 一而再,反复;once for all 一劳永逸地;断然;once more (=once again) 一再,再三;(for)this once 只这一次; once in a while 有时,偶尔;be at once...and不但,而且

(2) half此处用作副词,意为“一半,几乎,不完全地” 如:① These potatoes are only half cooked. 这些土豆煮得只是半熟。② She was half laughing,half crying. 他半笑半哭。③ It is half past four. 现在是4:30了。④ The baby is half asleep. 孩子几乎睡着了。

【链接】包含副词half的几种习惯说法:half and half各占一半;half as many/much...as...  ……的半数的;not half非常;极其;一点也不;not half as远远不,几乎不

Section IV 语法

省略:1) 在由and连接的句子中,为避免重复常省略一些重复的词或词组 (1) 省略共同的主语或宾语。如:Mr. Smith picked up a coin in the road and (Mr. Smith) handed it to a policeman. 史密斯先生在路上拾起一枚硬币,并把它交给了警察。(2) 若主语不同而与谓语助动词、情态动词相同,则省略后面的助动词或情态动词。如: Jack must have been playing football and Mary (must have been)doing her homework. 杰克肯定一直在踢足球,玛丽在写作业。(3) 若主语与谓语动词相同,则省略后面的主谓成分。如:His advice made me happy,but (his advice made) Jim angry. 他的建议使我高兴,但使吉姆愤怒。 (4) 若主语不同,但主要动词及后续部分相同,则省略主要动词及后续部分。如:I was born in winter in 1988 and Bob (was born in winter) in 1989. 我出生于1988年冬天,鲍勃是1989年冬天。(5) 省略重复的介词、连词及后续部分。如:He was late because he had overslept and (because he had) missed the train. 他迟到了,因为睡过了头误了火车。

    2) 状语从句中的省略:(1) 在when,while,whenever,till,as soon as,if,unless,as if,though,as,whether等引导的状语从句中,若谓语有be,而主语又跟主句主语相同或是it时,则从句的主语和be常被省略。如:① His opinion,whether (it is) right or wrong, would be considered. 他的意见,无论对错,都要考虑。 ② Errors, if (there are) any, should be corrected. 如果有什么错误,就应当改正。(2) 在as,than,however,whatever,no matter what等引导的从句中常省略某些成分。如:① Anyone,no matter who (he is), may point out our shortcomings. 我们的缺点,不管是什么人,谁都可指出来。② After two hours she became quieter (than she had been). 两个小时之后,她安静多了。③ I must get it done whatever the cost (may be). 无论代价如何,我也要把这件事情办好。 ④ I can only do it the way as (I was) told to (do it that way). 我只能按照你的吩咐去做。

    (3) 虚拟条件句常省略if,将were,had,should提前构成部分倒装。如:Should there be a flood (=If there should be a flood), what should we do? 如果发生了洪水,我们该怎么办?

    (4) 有些状语从句置于句末,可作句尾省略,有时可省略整个从句。如:① John will go there if my brother will (go). 如果我哥哥去那儿,约翰也去。② I would have come yesterday (if I had wanted to).

    3) 定语从句与名词性从句中的省略: (1) 在限制性定语从句中,作定语用的关系代词whom,which that可省略;在以the same…as和such as引出的某些定语从句中,也可省略与主句相同的部分。如:① The girl (who/whom/that) the teacher spoke to is Liu Ying. 老师与其说话的那个女孩是刘英。② I don't like such books as this (is). 我不喜欢这种书。(2)定语从句中的“主语 + 系动词be"可以省略。如:The goods (which were) ordered last month haven't arrived yet. 上月订购的货物还没到达。 (3) 在know,think,consider,suppose,find,believe,say,decide等动词后面所接的宾语从句中,连词that可以省略;若带有多个宾语从句,只有第一个that可省略,其余的不能。如:① I think (that) it will clear up this after-

noon. 我想今天下午天会转晴。② He said (that) the text was very important and that we should learn it by heart. 他说这篇课文非常重要,我们应该背下来。(4) 由which,when,where,how和why引导的宾语从句,可全部或部分省略。如:He will come back, but he doesn't know when (he will come back). 他是要回来的,可是他不知道什么时候回来。(5) 在与suggest,request,order,advise等词相关的名词性从句中,须用虚拟语气形式“should + 动词原形”,should可以省略。如:① The officer ordered that his men (should) fire. 军官命令士兵开火。② It is suggested that we (should) go to see the film.有人建议我们去看电影。

    4)复合句中的特殊的省略现象:(1)主语省略多用于句首,在答句中,主句或者一些成分可全部省略。如: ① (It is a) Pity that I didn't go to Mary's birthday party yesterday. 很遗憾,我昨天没去参加玛丽的生日聚会。 ② -- Why were you absent from school last Friday? -- (I was absent from school) Because my mother was ill. -- 上周五你为什么没来上学? -- 因为我妈妈病了。 (2)省略一个从句或从句的一部分,可用so或not代替。如: ① -- She may not be free today. -- If so (so = she is not free today), we'll have to report the manager. — 她今天可能没空。— 如果这样,我们得向经理报告。 ② -- Is he feeling better today? -- I'm afraid not(not=he isn't feeling better today). -- 今天他感觉好些了吗? -- 没有什么好转。

    【注意】常用于此类结构的动词有believe,think,expect,guess,hope,imagine,suppose,say,tell等以及appear,seem,afraid等。

    5)动词不定式省略,只保留to的场合:(1) 不定式作某些动词的宾语时,常见动词如like,love,care,hope,wish,expect,prefer,refuse,mean,try,oblige,advice,persuade,agree,want,afford,forget,remember,try,manage,hope 等。如:You can do it this way if you care to. 如果你想做可这么做。(2) 不定式在句中作某些动词后的宾语补足语或主语补足语时,常见动词如ask,tell,advise,force,persuade,wish,allow,permit等。如:    She wants to come but her parents won't allow her to. 她想来但她父母不让她来。(3) 不定式在句中作某些形容词的状语时,常见形容词如 happy,glad,eager,anxious,willing,ready 等。如: I think she should get a job, but you can't force her to if she's not ready to. 我认为她应该找项工作做,但如果她不愿意你也不能强求。(4)不定式作某些复合谓语时,常见结构如be able to,be going to,have to,ought to,used to等。如: He doesn't like fish but he used to. 他现在不喜欢吃鱼,但过去喜欢。

    【注意】当省略的不定式内容是作助动词用的have或be的任何形式时,to后要保留原形have或be。如:    ① He didn't come, but he ought to have. 他没为,但他应该来。② Alice is not what she used to be. 艾丽斯变了。

    6)动词不定式符号to的省略:(1) 主语部分有to do,系动词是is或was时,作表语的不定式通常省略to。如:    The only thing you have to do is (to) press the button. 你须做的惟一事情是按钮。(2) 作介词but,except,besides的宾语,前面有实义动词do时,常省略不定式符号to。如:Tom had nothing to do besides answer letters this morning. 今天上午汤姆除了复信外什么也没做。(3) 当两个或多个不定式并列时,其后的不定式符号可省略,但有对比关系时则不省略。如:It is easier to make a plan than to carry in out. 制定计划比执行计划容易。(4) 在see,watch,notice,hear,listen to,look at,feel,have,make,1et,leave,observe等词后作宾语补足语时,省略不定式符号to;why (not)do结构中不定式不带to。如:  ① Did you notice her enter the room? 你发现她进房间了吗? ② Why not join us? 为什么不加入到我们行列里来呢?

    7) 介词的省略:(1) 一些常和动词、名词或形容词一起搭配的介词常省略,而保留其后的动名词,常见句型有:spend/waste time (in) doing,lose no time (in) doing,have difficulty/trouble(in)doing,by busy (in)doing,stop/prevent sb. (from) doing等。如:① The heavy rain prevented him (from) arriving there on time. 大雨使得他没能准时到达那里。② She lost no time (in) giving the patient first aid.她立刻对病人进行急救。(2) 表示时间的介词at,on和in用在next,last,this,these,yesterday,tomorrow,one,any,every,each,some,all等词之前,一般皆省略;表示一段时间状语短语之前的for也可省略。如: ① We go to school every day except Sundays. 除星期天处,我们每天都上学。② We have been here (for) three weeks. 我们这儿已呆了三周了。(3) 表示行为方式的in在in this way,in the same way,in another way等词组中,经常被省略。如: He did it(in)this way.他是这样做的。

    8) 会话中的省略:省略在会话中应用广泛,无论是回答别人问题,还是在接别人说话时都会发生,否则就觉得累赘。如:① -- Do you like this shirt? -- Yes,(I like this shirt)very much. — 你喜欢这件衬衫吗? — 非常喜欢。② (Come)This way, please. 请这边走

文 章
来源 莲山 课件 w w
w.5 Y k J.cOM
最新教案

点击排行

推荐教案