2016-2018三年高考英语分项解析--定语从句

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2016-2018三年高考英语分项解析--定语从句

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2018年高考题
1.【2018•北京】5. She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.
A. which    B. who    C. as    D. that
【答案】A
【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:她和家人骑自行车去上班,这有助于她们保持健康。“____ helps them keep fit”是非限制性定语从句,该从句修饰整个主句,引导词在从句中做主语,故该从句应用关系代词which引导。A选项正确。
点睛:非限制性定语从句即可修饰主句的一部分,也可以修饰整个主句。其引导词的选择和限制性定语从句的判断规则一致,即:第一、找准先行词;第二、看先行词在定语从句中所作的成分。需要注意的是,that不能引导非限制性定语从句。
2.【2018•天津】2. Kae, _________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.
A. whom    B. that
C. whose    D. her
【答案】C
 
点睛:本题考查定语从句。定语从句是高考重点考查知识之一,分析定语从句需抓住两点:1.找准先行词;2.看先行词在从句中所作的成分。抓住这两点,再根据句意,从而能够判断出正确的关系词。
3.【2018•江苏】23. Self-driving is an area _______ China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.
A. that    B. where
C. which    D. when
【答案】B
【解析】考查定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是一个中国和世界其它国家都在同一起跑线的领域。句中先行词为area,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where,相当于in which。故选B。
点睛:本题考查定语从句。定语从句是高考重点考查知识之一,分析定语从句需抓住两点:1.找准先行词。2.看先行词在从句中所作的成分。抓住这两点,再根据句意,从而能够判断出正确的关系词。
2017年高考题
【2017•北京卷】31. The little problems ______ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.
A. that          B. as       C. where        D. when 
【答案】A
 
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】
定语从句的关系词分为关系代词(who, whom, whose, that, which, as 等)和关系副词(when, where, why等)。
1. 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在从句中充当主语、宾语,定语等成分。关系副词可代替的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
eg. An architect is a person who / that designs houses and buildings.
  The city where / in which I was born is on the new railway line.
2. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
   关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,关系代词可省略(非限定性定语从句中不可省略)。
e.g.  I find it difficult to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
I find it difficult to cooperate with the one who always sticks to his own opinion.
 The suit (which / that ) the tailor made for me doesn’t fit me.
3. 非限定性定语从句中,关系词均不可省略。注意关系代词that, 关系副词why, 不可用于非限定性定语从句。
4. 作介词宾语的关系代词
    在限制和非限制性定语从句中,关系代词作介词宾语,即介词+关系代词,whom用于指人,which用于指物,不能用that。
e.g. The man with whom you shook hands just now is head of our department.
 Mrs. Nye, with whom you shook hands just now, is head of our department.
The room in which my family live used to be a garage.
【2017•江苏】28. In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of _______ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation.
A. which             B. it’s           C. whose          D. whom
【答案】C
【解析】
试题分析:考查定语从句。先行词是“the World Food Programme”,“世界粮食项目”的目的之一是……,
whose在定语从句中作定语,这里限定purposes,故选C。句意:1963年联合国建立了世界粮食计划署,
其目的之一就是为了缓解世界范围内的饥饿问题。
考点:考查定语从句
【2017•天津】9. My eldest son, _______ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment.
A. that   B. whose   C. his    D. who
【答案】B
 
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which,  whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语;whose做定语;where, why, when在句中做地点,原因和时间状语。要分析定语从句的成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。
2016年高考题
1.【2016•北京】22. I live next door to a couple ________ children often make a lot of noise.
A. whose      B. why      C. where      D. which
【答案】A
【解析】
试题分析:题目考查定语从句的关系词。a couple是先行词,这对夫妻的孩子很吵,children和couple是所属关系,故用whose作定语,whose children相当于the children of whom,故选A。
考点:考查定语从句
【名师点睛】
定语从句的关系词分为关系代词(who, whom, whose, that, which, as 等)和关系副词(when, where, why等)。
1. 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在从句中充当主语、宾语,定语等成分。关系副词可代替的先行词是表示时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
eg. An architect is a person who / that designs houses and buildings.
  The city where / in which I was born is on the new railway line.
2. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
   关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,关系代词可省略(非限定性定语从句中不可省略)。
eg.  I find it difficult to cooperate with those who always stick to their own opinions.
I find it difficult to cooperate with the one who always sticks to his own opinion.
 The suit (which / that ) the tailor made for me doesn’t fit me.
3. 非限定性定语从句中,关系词均不可省略。注意关系代词that, 关系副词why, 不可用于非限定性定语从句。
4. 作介词宾语的关系代词
    在限制和非限制性定语从句中,关系代词作介词宾语,即介词+关系代词,whom用于指人,which用于指物,不能用that。
eg. The man with whom you shook hands just now is head of our department.
 Mrs. Nye, with whom you shook hands just now, is head of our department.
         The room in which my family live used to be a garage.
2.【2016•江苏】23.Many young people, most ______were well-educated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams.
A. of which B. of them C. of whom D. of those
【答案】C
 
【名师点睛】
“of whom / which”引导的定语从句:在非限制性定语从句中,先行词作为一个整体,表示整体中的一部分,即表示“部分与整体”的关系时,用…of which / whom或者of which / whom…都可以。但与表示所属关系不同,这里不能用whose来代替of which。
一、表示整体中的部分
The buses, most of which were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd. 公共汽车大多数都已经挤满了人,它们被愤怒的人群包围着。
I picked up the apples, some of which were badly bruised. 我拣起那些苹果,其中有一些伤得很厉害。
I bought a dozen eggs, six of which broke when I dropped the box. 我买了一打鸡蛋,六个在我失手掉了盒子时摔碎了。
There are two bottles left, one of which is almost finished and the other of which is not quite. 只剩两瓶,一瓶快喝完了,另一瓶没完全喝完。
The treasure some of which has been recovered, has been sent to the British Museum. 这些宝藏已送往大英博物馆,其中有一些是失而复得的。
二、表示所属关系
He’s written a book, the name of which I’ve forgotten. 他写了一本书,书名我忘了。
句中的the name of which=whose name。
It was an agreement the details of which could not be altered. 这是一项其细节不可更改的协定。
句中的the details of which=whose details。
考点:考查定语从句
3.【2016•浙江】11. Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears , none of ______ has been proved.
A. whom       B. which         C. what         D. that
【答案】B
 
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做地点,原因和时间状语。要分析定语从句的成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。如果是代词+of+关系代词,注意先行词是人用whom,先行词是物用which。
4.【2016•天津】9. We will put off the picnic in the park until next week, ____ the weather may be better.
  A. that           B. where      C. which       D. when
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析: 句意:我们将把公园的野餐推迟到下个星期,那时天气可能会更好。使用定语从句,先行词是next week,定语从句中不缺少主宾表,缺少时间状语。故选D。
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做地点,原因和时间状语。要分析定语从句的成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。
2015年高考题
1.【2015•湖南】29.It is a truly delightful place, ________ looks the same as it must have done 100 years ago with its winding streets and pretty cottages..
 A. as  B. where C. that D. which
【答案】D
 
【考点定位】考查定语从句关系代词。
【名师点睛】本题旨在考查定语从句中的关系词,要求学生掌握在什么情况下用关系副词,什么情况下用关系代词以及各自的意义。非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。
2.【2015•北京】24.Opposite is St.Paul's Church,___you can hear some lovely music.
A. which   B.that   C.when   D.where
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析:句意:对面是圣保罗教堂,在教堂里你能听到一些优美的音乐。这是一个定语从句。先行词是St. Paul’s Church,从句主谓宾成分完整,去掉空后依然是完整的句子,可推断出引导词在从句中作的是地点状语。用where。故选D。
【考点定位】考查非限制性定语从句
【名师点睛】本题考查学生对非限制性定语从句的掌握情况,做题之前先看到句子中间有没有逗号,逗号是非限制性定语从句的标志。然后再看句子中缺不缺成份,在定语从句中从句主语宾语都不缺少时,应该考虑关系副词,所以学生需要记住这种方法。
3.【2015•重庆】14. He wrote many children’ s books, nearly half of____ were published in the 1990s.
A. whom         B. which          C. them         D. that
【答案】B               
【解析】             
试题分析:句意:他写了许多儿童书籍,几乎一半在1990年左右出版。先行词是books,定语从句中of缺少宾语,故选B项。          
【考点定位】考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句有一种介词+关系代词,用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词,不及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系副词或介词+关系代词,而及物动词后接宾语,则要求关系代词。Do you know the boy to whom she was talking? Do you know the boy (that) she was talking to?此类定语从句,首先从先行词入手,确实主语是人还是物,再根据定语从句缺少的成分来辨别到底用哪个引导词。
4.【2015•浙江】19. Creating an atmosphere       employees feel part of a team is a big challenge.
 A. as      B. whose         C. in which          D. at which
【答案】C
 
【考点定位】考查定语从句介词加which的用法。
【名师点睛】解答此题需要能够看出这是一个定语从句的结构名词+连词+句子,也需要分析从句的句子成分。关系词的选择,最关键的就是看先行词在定语从句中作什么成分,而不是看先行词是表示什么的单词,如表示地点的先行词之后未必用where,同样表示时间的先行词之后未必用when。当关系代词作介词宾语,且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时,介词可以提前,这样就出现"介词+关系代词"。先行词指物,用"介词+which",指人则用"介词+whom", 且两个关系代词均不能省略,介词的选择要遵循两个原则: 1.根据定语从句中谓语动词与先行词的搭配内容而定。2.根据先行词特殊用法而定。
5.【2015•天津】15 The boss of the company is trying to create an easy atmosphere ______ his employees enjoy their work.
A. where    B. which    C. when    D. who
【答案】A
【解析】
试题分析:句意:公司老板正尽力创造一种轻松的气氛,在这种气氛中,其员工喜欢他们的工作。句中先行词为atmosphere,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where。根据句意可知选A。
【考点定位】考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】本题考查定语从句。定语从句是高考重点考查知识之一,分析定语从句需要牢牢抓住两点:第一、找准先行词。第二、看先行词在从句中所作的成分。抓住这两点,再根据句意,从而能够判断出正确的关系词。
6.【2015•四川】3.The books on the desk,        covers are shiny, are prizes for us.
A.which     B. what      C. whose          D. that
【答案】C
 
【考点定位】考查定语从句
【名师点睛】本题考查定语从句中关系词的选择。本句主要考查了关系代词whose的用法,whose在定语从句中担当定语,和其后的名词之间存在所有关系,还是比较容易判断的。此题中如果在covers之前加上定冠词the,则需要用of+which结构。即此题等同于:The books on the desk, of which the covers are shiny, are prizes for us.
7.【2015•陕西】15. As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time      he should be able to be independent.
A. which    B. where    C. whom   D. when
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析:句意:作为家里最小的孩子,Alex总是渴望他能够有独立的时间。这里使用定语从句,先行词是the time,定语从句中缺少时间状语,用关系副词when,所以选D。
【考点定位】考查定语从句
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。
8.【2015•福建】34.China Today attracts a worldwide readership,_______ shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China.
A. who B. whom C. that D. which
【答案】D
 
【考点定位】考查非限制性定语从句
【名师点睛】关系词的选择,最关键的就是看先行词在定语从句中作什么成分,而不是看先行词是表示什么的单词,如表示地点的先行词之后未必用where,同样表示时间的先行词之后未必用when。Which在非限制性定语从句中通常是代指前面整个句子或者一个较长的词语,并且在从句中做主语。
9.【2015•江苏】21.The number of smokers, _____ is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.
A. it                    B. which           C. what                D. as
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析:句意:据报道,吸烟者人数仅(过去)一年就减少了17%。as引导的非限制性定语从句位置灵活,可以置于主句的句首、句中或句末,指代的是整个一句话。故选D项。考生容易误选B项which,把逗号前面的the number of smokers看成先行词,后面非限制性定语从句用which引导。殊不知,这里关系代词指代的是“The number of smokers has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.”整个一句话。另外,as和which在定语从句都可以指代一句话,但前者有“正如……”的意思,后者则没有。还可以抓住as is reported这一常用结构,类似的还有as is known/expected/planned/mentioned/said等。
【考点定位】定语从句
【名师点睛】考生容易误选B项which,把逗号前面的the number of smokers看成先行词,后面非限制性定语从句用which引导。殊不知,这里关系代词指代的是“The number of smokers has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.”整个一句话。另外,as和which在定语从句都可以指代一句话,但前者有“正如……”的意思,后者则没有。还可以抓住as is reported这一常用结构,类似的还有as is known/expected/planned/mentioned/said等。
10.【2015•安徽】28.Some experts think reading is the fundamental skill upon______ school education depends.
A. it    B. that   C. whose   D. which
【答案】D
 
【考点定位】考查定语从句
【名师点睛】本题考查定语从句。定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,有逗号隔开的是非限制性定语从句。定语从句的关系词分为关系代词和关系副词。在定语从句中,介词后只能跟whom或which,指人用whom;指物用which。这里的先行词是skill,指物。
2014年高考英语分项解析精编版
1.【2014•重庆卷】9. We’ll reach the sales targets in a month _______ we set at the beginning of the year.
  A. which       B. where       C. when       D. what
【答案】A
【解析】
试题分析:题意:再有一个月就能完成年初制订的销售目标。which指代targets, 在从句中充当set的宾语,排除B、C两项;D项只能引导名词性从句,而本题是一个定语从句,故选择A项。
考点:考查定语从句的用法。
【名师点睛】本题考查学生对定语从句的掌握情况,做题之前先看到句子中间有没有逗号,逗号是非限制性定语从句的标志,没有逗号是限制性定语从句。然后再看句子中缺不缺成份,在定语从句中从句主语宾语缺少某一项时,应该考虑关系代词,本题从句中缺少宾语,要用which或that代替,因此考生需要记住这种方法。

2.【2014•北京卷】26. I borrow the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, ______ my classmates recommended to me..
A.who     B. which 
C. when        D. Where
【答案】B
【解析】
试题分析:本题考查定语从句,考查方式为选择连接词。根据题干信息,定语从句的先行词为book,定语从句中缺乏宾语(我朋友推荐给我“书”),加之逗号后为非限制性定语从句,所以本题选B。句意:上周我从图书馆借了《福尔摩斯》,这是我的同学推荐给我的。
考点:考查定语从句的关系词。
【名师点睛】考查非限制性定语从句。定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如: This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)考生明确这两种就可以轻松解题。
3.【2014•天津卷】12. English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, _________ uses it differently.
A. all of which  B. each of which  C. all of them  D. each of them
【答案】B
 
考点:考查非限制性定语从句和主谓一致。
【名师点睛】考查非限制性定语从句。关系代词which在非限制性定语从句中所指代和修饰的可以是主句中的名词、形容词、短语、其他从句或整个主句,在从句中作主语、动词宾语、介词宾语或表语。如:There are 30 chairs in the small hall, most of which are new.大厅里有三十把椅子,绝大部分是新的。本题中which作主语,从句中的谓语动词是uses ,是动词的单三形式,只能选择B。
4.【2014•山东卷】10. A company ______profits from home markets are declining may seek opportunities abroad.
   A. which     B. whose     C. who     D. why
【答案】B
【解析】
试题分析:这是一个定语从句,a company 是先行词,profit和 a company是所属关系,所以要用关系代词whose。句意为:在国内市场利润减少的公司可能会寻求国外发展的机会。故答案选B。
考点:考查定语从句的用法。
【名师点睛】本题与2015年四川卷第3题类似The books on the desk, whose covers are shiny, are prizes for us.
本题考查定语从句中关系词的选择。本句主要考查了关系代词whose的用法,whose在定语从句中担当定语,和其后的名词之间存在所有关系,考生应该容易判断。whose是关系代词who的所有格形式,在从句中作定语。whose通常指人,也可指动物或无生命的事物。如:The boy, whose father is an engineer, studies very hard.
那位父亲是位工程师小男孩学习很努力.Above the trees are the mountains, whose magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface.在树林的高处是山,其壮丽的景色完全映照在河面上。
5.【2014•江西卷】35. It was the middle of the night __ my father woke me up and told me to watch the football game.
A. that        B.  as     C.  which       D. when
【答案】D
 
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】本题与2015年陕西卷第15题类似. As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time when he should be able to be independent. 关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as,who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。1)如:I shall never forget the day when we first met in a park.(作时间状语)2) My favorite city is Beijing where i can visit the Great Wall.(作地点状语)
3) This is the reason why you should leave.(作原因状语)把理论理解透彻了就可解题。
6.【2014•四川卷】4. I now, we have raised 50.000 pounds for the poor children, ______ is quite unexpected.
A. that                          B. which               C. who                  D. it
【答案】B
【解析】
试题分析:前后两个句子中间没有连词,是逗号,故判断为非限制性定语从句,that和it不引导非限制性定语从句,排除AD选项。 who用来指代人, which用来指代物或者句子,而在本句中关系代词指代前面句子内容,故答案选B。句意:直到现在,我们已经为穷苦儿童筹集了50,000英镑,这真的出乎意料。
【知识拓展】非限制性定语从句和并列句的区别关键看前后两个句子中间是否是逗号,是否有连词,比如:
He has a daughter, who was admitted to a key university. 而He has a daughter, and she was admitted to a key university .
考点:考查定语从句的用法。
【名师点睛】本题与2015年福建卷第34题类似.China Today attracts a worldwide readership, which shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China.非限制性定语从句能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词往往为某一个词或短语,而特殊情况下非限制性定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句,此时非限制性定语从句常由 which 引导。例A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much.
7.【2014•福建卷】31. Students should involve themselves in community activities__________they can gain experience for growth.
 A. who        B. when        C. which     D. where
【答案】D
 
【知识拓展】
被修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词)之后。定语从句一般由关系代词来引导。关系代词必须放在定语从句之首。定语从句在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
考点:本题考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】本题可以采取还原句子解题。还原为:Students should involve themselves in community activities,they can gain experience for growth from community activities.加一个介词from,副词where在非限制性定语从句中作地点状语。在本句中they gain experience for growth from community activities=where they gain experience for growth
8.【2014•江苏卷】22. The book has helped me greatly in my daily communication, especially at work ________ a good impression is a must.
A. which   B. when    C. as    D. where
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析:考查定语从句用法。句中的先行词为work,在从句a good impression is must中作地点状语,故用关系副词where。句意:这本书对我的日常交际有极大的帮助,尤其在工作中,良好的印象是必须的。故D正确。
考点:考查定语从句用法
【名师点睛】本题考查状语从句。状语从句指句子用作状语时,起副词作用的句子。它可以修饰谓语、非谓语动词、定语、状语或整个句子。根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,也可以由词组引起。从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。将从句恢复正常语序是:A good impression is a must in the work.所以要用where作地点状语。故选D。
9.【2014•陕西卷】13. Please send us all the information _________ you have about the candidate for the position.
A. that            B. which            C. as       D. what
【答案】A
 
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】that和which都可指物,且在句中都可作主语和宾语,多数情况下可以互换。但在以下情况中,关系代词只能用that,不能用which。1.先行词既指人又指物。⒉先行词是不定代词all,everything,nothing,anything,much,little,few等。⒊先行词被all,every,any,little,only,much,no等修饰时,或先行词本身是all,much,everything,anything,no以及no构成的复合词。⒋先行词被形容词及序数词的最高级修饰。⒌先行词被the only,the very,the last,the same修饰。⒍ 有两个或两个以上分别表示人或物的先行词。
⒎主句以who,what,which开头的特殊疑问句。本题属于第3种情况,故只能用that。
10.【2014•安徽卷】22.The exact year        Angela and her family spent together in China was 2008.
A. When             B. where           C. why              D. which
【答案】D
【解析】
试题分析:句意:--Angela和家人一起在中国度过的那年是2008年。这句话使用了定语从句,先行词是the exact year,定语从句中的动词spent是及物动词,后面缺少宾语,所以用关系代词that或which引导定语从句,而不能用关系副词。所以选D。
【知识拓展】
考点:考查定语从句
定语从句关系词的考查,首先要确定从句是定语从句,然后找到先行词,再分析关系词在从句中的成分,最后选择正确的词。如果定语从句中缺少主宾表或定语,就用关系代词that/which/who/whose引导,如果做宾语,可以省略关系代词,如果定语从句中不缺主宾表,缺少的是状语,用关系副词when,where,why引导定语从句,如果定语从句中缺少介词+先行词,就用介词+关系代词。要求考生具有一定的句子分析能力,和理解能力。一些抽象意义的地点状语,如:situation,point,case,如果定语从句缺少地点状语,用where引导定语从句。
【名师点睛】本题A选项是干扰项,考生要仔细分析先行词在从句中做什么成分来确定关系代词。就本题而言,先行词是the exact year,定语从句中的动词spent,构成结构:sb spend time on sth/in doing sth,后面缺少宾语,所以用关系代词that或which引导定语从句,不能用关系副词。
11.【2014•湖南卷】31.I am looking forward to the day  my daughter can read this book and know my
feelings for her.
A. as     B. why    C. when       D. where
【答案】C
 
考点:考查定语从句用法
【名师点睛】本题与2015年陕西卷第15题类似. As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time  when    he should be able to be independent. when 指时间,在从句中作时间状语,它的先行词为time, day, date, morning, night, week, year, moment, period, age等,亦可用“介词+which”替代.如:1、The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life.2、We went through a period when everything was expensive in the market. 3、I still remember the time when I first traveled by plane.故本题选when。
12.【2014•浙江卷】5. I don’t become a serious climber until the fifth grade, ______ I went up to rescue a kite that was stuck in the branches of a tree.
   A. when                    B. where                C. which                   D. why
【答案】A
【试题分析】这里先行词是the fifth grade,指的是时间;后面是when引导的定语从句。句意:我没有成为一个认真的攀登者,直到我上五年级的时候,那时我爬上去拿一个被挂在树上的风筝。故选A。
【知识拓展】这四个词在引导定语从句中的区别:when引导的定语从句的先行词必须是表示时间的词,它在定语从句中作状语;where引导的定语从句的先行词必须是表示地点的词,它在定语从句中作状语;which引导的定语从句的先行词必须是表示物的词,它在定语从句中作主语或宾语;why引导的定语从句的先行词必一般是reason,它在定语从句中作状语。
考点:考查定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看从句中缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。本题缺少时间状语,故填when。
2013年高考英语试题分类汇编之单项填空
专题08—定语从句
1.【2013•浙江卷】The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform_________ visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built.
A. what B. where C. when    D. why
 
【名师点睛】定语从句的关键在于分析句子结构,定语从句中如果既不缺主语,也不缺宾语和表语,就要考虑是否用关系副词或whose作定语,意为“谁的”。至于如何判断缺不缺主或是宾语,尤其是缺宾语的情况,要将先行词带到定语从句中谓语动词之后看是否符合逻辑搭配,如符合则缺宾语,如不符合就不缺。
2. [2013•重庆卷] John invited about 40 people to  his wedding, most of    ________   are family members.
A.them         B.that         C.which             D.whom
【答案与解析】D 考查定语从句。该句为非限制性定语从句,用whom来代替people并连接主从句。
【名师点睛】考查定语从句一要看先行词,而要看从句的成分,如果缺少主宾表,要用that或which,缺少状语用关系副词,缺少定语用whose。如果定语从句中缺少介词+先行词,就用介词+which/whom引导定语从句。
3.[2013•陕西卷]       is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the doctor arrived.
  A. It                B. That              C. What                D. As
【答案与解析】D考查定语从句。所填词引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是整个主句,关系词在从句中作主语,意思是:正如,像……一样,用as,故选D。句意:正如孩子们普遍的现象,当医生到来时Amy身体好多了。
【名师点睛】as可以引导非限制性定语从句,可以放在句首或句末,意思是“正如”,指代主句的内容,在从句中做主宾表。有些固定搭配可以记忆,如:as is often the case;as is known to all等。
4. [2013•四川卷] Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment   ________ they live.
A.   what        B. which       C. when           D. where
【答案与解析】D 考查定语从句的用法。此处the environment为先行词,where代替它作后面定语从句的状语。句意:如今人们更关心他们居住的环境。
【名师点睛】定语从句关系词的考查,首先要确定从句是什么类型的从句,然后再分析关系词在从句中的成分,最后选择正确的词。要求考生具有一定的句子分析能力,和理解能力。如果缺少主宾表,要用that或which,缺少状语用关系副词when,where,why,缺少定语用whose。
5. [2013•山东卷] Finally he reached a lonely island ________  was completely cut off from the outside world.
A. when      B. where     C. which     D. whom
【答案与解析】C 考查定语从句。先行词是a lonely island,在定语从句中作主语。句意:最终他到达了一个孤岛上,这个孤岛与外界完全隔绝。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。通过判断引导词在从句中所作的成分及意义,来选择正确的引导词。
6. [2013•山东卷] There is no simple answer,    ________  is often the case in science.
A. as       B. that      C. when     D. where
 
【名师点睛】as可以引导非限制性定语从句,可以放在句首或句末,意思是“正如”,指代主句的内容,在从句中做主宾表。有些固定搭配可以记忆,如:as is often the case;as is known to all等。
7. [2013•辽宁卷] He may win the competition,   ________    he is likely to get into the national team.
A.in which case    B.in that case    C.in what case    D.in whose case
【答案与解析】A 考查定语从句。在非限制性定语从句中,用which, in which case 指代前面he may win the competition。
【名师点睛】考查定语从句一要看先行词,而要看从句的成分,如果缺少主宾表,要用that或which,缺少状语用关系副词,缺少定语用whose。也有的用“介词+which+名词”引导定语从句。
8. [2013•江西卷] He wrote a letter ________ he explained what had happened in the accident.
A. what         B. which      C. where       D. how
【答案与解析】C 考查定语从句。句意:他写了一封信,在信中,他解释了在这次事故中所发生的事情。 定语从句中有主语和宾语从句,先行词在从句中作状语,where相当于in which。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。通过判断引导词在从句中所作的成分及意义,来选择正确的引导词。
9. [2013•江苏] The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China,________ he remembers starting as early as his childhood.
A.where        B.which        C.what     D.when
 
【名师点睛】非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解,在非限定性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开,如若将非限定性定语从句放在句子中间,起前后都需要用逗号隔开。需要注意 which引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。 在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用that。
10. [2013•湖南卷] Happiness and success often come to those ________ are good at recognizing their own strengths.
A. whom       B. who      C. what     D. which
【答案与解析】B   考查定语从句。句意:幸福和成功往往降临到那些善于认识到自己优点的人身上。空格前的代词those指代“人”,且在定语从句中作主语,故用who引导定语从句。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。
11. [2013•福建卷] The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ________ lives were affected.
A. whose      B. that        C. who      D. which
【答案与解析】A 考查定语从句。先行词指人且在句中作定语修饰其后的名词“lives”, 所以用whose。句意为:这本书以那些生活受到地震影响的人们的眼光讲述了这次地震的许多故事。
【名师点睛】定语从句关系词的考查,首先要确定从句是什么类型的从句,然后再分析关系词在从句中的成分,最后选择正确的词。要求考生具有一定的句子分析能力,和理解能力。如果缺少主宾表,要用that或which,缺少状语用关系副词when,where,why,缺少定语用whose。
12. [2013•北京卷] Many countries are now setting up national parks  ________  animals and plants can be protected.
A. when      B. which       C. whose       D. where
【答案与解析】D 考查定语从句的关系词。先行词为表示地点的名词parks,定语从句中为成分完整的句子,需要一个表示“在……地方”的连接词连接起来,所以选D。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。通过判断引导词在从句中所作的成分及意义,来选择正确的引导词。
13. [2013•安徽卷] Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012,     ________      made one of the Chinese people's long-held dreams come true.
A.it       B.that       C.what      D.which
【答案与解析】D  考查定语从句。关系代词which指代前面整个主句内容,引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中作主语。
【名师点睛】非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解,在非限定性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开,如若将非限定性定语从句放在句子中间,起前后都需要用逗号隔开。需要注意 which引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。 在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用that。
14. [2013•天津卷]We have launched another man-made satellite,________ is announced in today's newspaper.
A. that         B. which        C.who         D.what
 
【名师点睛】非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用,缺少也不会影响全句的理解,在非限定性定语从句的前面往往有逗号隔开,如若将非限定性定语从句放在句子中间,起前后都需要用逗号隔开。需要注意 which引导的非限定性定语从句是用来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分。 在非限定性定语从句中,关系词不能用that。
15. [2013•课标全国卷Ⅱ] When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house   ________    I would  be staying.
A. what      B. when       C. where      D. which
【答案与解析】C 考查定语从句。句意:当我到了的时候,布莱恩带我去看我要居住的房子。 where引导定语从句,先行词the house在从句中作地点状语。
【名师点睛】定语从句的考查主要就是考查关系词的辨析,关系代词that, which, whose, whom, as, who在句中做主语,宾语,表语或者定语;where, why, when在句中做状语。要分析句子成分,看缺少什么成分,就选用相应的关系词。通过判断引导词在从句中所作的成分及意义,来选择正确的引导词。
16.【2013浙江】The children, ______ had played the whole day long, were worn out.
A. all of what          B. all of which          C. all of them       D. all of whom
 
【名师点睛】考查定语从句一要看先行词,而要看从句的成分,如果缺少主宾表,要用that或which,缺少状语用关系副词,缺少定语用whose。如果定语从句中缺少代词+介词+先行词,就用代词+介词+which/whom引导定语从句。


 

 

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